'''Alfred Russel Wallace''' (8 January 1823 – 7 November 1913) was a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|British Natural history|naturalist
, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution
through natural selection
; his paper on the subject was jointly published with some of Charles Darwin
's writings in 1858.
This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in ''On the Origin of Species
.'' Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin
and then in the Malay Archipelago
, where he identified the faunal divide now termed the Wallace Line
, which separates the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna reflect Australasia
He was considered the 19th century's leading expert on...